PMID: 21551031;PMCID: PMC3166216;Abstract:
Vascular plants appeared ∼410 million years ago, then diverged into several lineages of which only two survive: the euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) and the lycophytes. We report here the genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (Selaginella), the first nonseed vascular plant genome reported. By comparing gene content in evolutionarily diverse taxa, we found that the transition from a gametophyte- to a sporophyte-dominated life cycle required far fewer new genes than the transition from a nonseed vascular to a flowering plant, whereas secondary metabolic genes expanded extensively and in parallel in the lycophyte and angiosperm lineages. Selaginella differs in posttranscriptional gene regulation, including small RNA regulation of repetitive elements, an absence of the trans-acting small interfering RNA pathway, and extensive RNA editing of organellar genes.
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement.
PMID: 12517864;PMCID: PMC149572;Abstract:
Molecular-phylogenetic sequence analyses have provided a new perspective on microbial communities by allowing the detection and identification of constituent microorganisms in the absence of cultivation. In this study we used broad-specificity amplification of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes to survey organisms present in the human outer ear canal. Samples were obtained from 24 individuals, including members of three extended families, in order to survey the resident microbiota and to examine microbial population structures in individuals related by familial or household associations. To examine the stability of the microbial populations, one individual was sampled four times and another twice over a 14-month period. We found that a distinct set of microbial types was present in the majority of the subjects sampled. The two most prevalent rDNA sequence types that were identified in multiple individuals corresponded closely to those of Alloiococcus otitis and Corynebacterium otitidis, commonly thought to be associated exclusively with infections of the middle ear. Our results suggest, therefore, that the outer ear canal may serve as a reservoir for normally commensal microbes that can contribute to pathogenesis upon introduction into the middle ear. Alternatively, culture analyses of diseases of the middle ear may have been confounded by these contaminating commensal organisms.