Four rural municipalities were evaluated for their bacterial contributions to the nonpoint source pollution (NPSP) in the Little Bear agricultural watershed. Total and fecal coliform were investigated to determine the bacterial contributions of these municipalities. Grab samples collected from perennial streams upstream and downstream of these municipalities were collected for about 15 months in 1993-1994. Total and fecal coliform were statistically significantly higher downstream compared to upstream for each municipality. The number of total coliform bacteria in either the upstream or downstream samples did not exceed the State criterion of 5000/100 mL. However, the State numerical criteria for fecal coliform, 200/mL, was exceeded in downstream samples at least five times over the 15-month period for all four municipalities. Bacterial nonpoint source pollution from rural municipalities should be incorporated in the predictive computer models used to determine total NPSP from agricultural watersheds.
Onsite/decentralized terminology originated and evolved on the state or regional level in conjunction with regulatory or Agricultural Engineering Extension activities. Adapting terminology from one locale to match that used in another is increasingly cumbersome since resources originally developed to address local issues and inform consumers are now shared nationally. Significant advances from proprietary and academic research and development have resulted in a wide range of treatment options and best management practices in use nation wide. Several national initiatives are also underway to standardize industry practices, but inconsistent terminology is a barrier to acceptance of nationally-developed training materials and guidance documents. Ever-increasing interaction among industry sectors across the country now dictates the use of consistent vocabulary. To promote standardized terminology, the Consortium of Institutes for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment (CIDWT) has developed a glossary by gathering terms and definitions from a variety of sources. With funding provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through the Water Environment Research Federation (WERF), the project produced a glossary of commonly-used terms used in the onsite/decentralized wastewater treatment field. Standardization of terms and definitions will facilitate continued education and the exchange of information within both the academic and field practitioner realms. This paper discusses the project concept and goals and provides insight into the initial development of the glossary. It also presents an overview of the rigorous review process used to refine the terminology and definitions. Lastly, it describes the extensive scope of the stakeholders who to participated in the review and refinement process.
An anaerobic contact process incorporating an ultrafiltration (UF) unit was used to treat distillery wastewater characterized by high carbon and nitrogen concentrations and a low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. By diluting the influent to the fermentor with water (2.6 to 2.8 fold), the ammonia accumulation or inhibition caused by its low C/N ratio was avoided. The UF unit was employed to thicken the sludge without washing out the microbes in the process. The resulting treatment system produced a methane yield of up to 0.6 m3/kg-VS and removed up to 80% of the volatile acids. The process ultimately failed when the UF membrane irrevocably fouled and caused a decrease of microbes in the fermentor. The process can be effective for the treatment of high strength, low C/N wastewater with some modifications, especially for membrane flushing. The quantity of fresh water for dilution could be reduced by filtering the UF filtrate using a reverse osmosis unit. To increase the volatile acids (VA) consumption rate, a two-phase fermentation process incorporating an UF unit may be able to thicken the targeted microbes independently of the microbial kinetics. The UF filtrate contained too high a VA concentration to be released into a waterbody directly; thus, this system needs a secondary treatment system to be considered a total wastewater treatment system.