There is extensive evidence that activation of the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the ability of the adaptive immune system to induce Ang II-dependent hypertension and whether central and renal T-cell infiltration during Ang II-induced hypertension is sex dependent. Recombinant activating gene-1 (Rag-1)(-/-) mice, lacking both T and B cells, were used. Male and female Rag-1(-/-) mice received adoptive transfer of male CD3(+) T cells 3 weeks before 14-day Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute). Blood pressure was monitored via tail cuff. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to Ang II were similar between sexes (Δ22.1 mm Hg males versus Δ18 mm : Hg females). After adoptive transfer of male T cells, Ang II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in males (Δ37.7 mm : Hg; P
The purpose of this study was to identify the complement of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expressed in nodose ganglia and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). mRNA from these tissues was isolated and amplified with standard RT-PCR with primers specific for each mGluR subtype. The results of this analysis showed that the NTS expresses all eight mGluR subtypes, whereas nodose ganglia express only group III mGluRs: mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, and mGluR8. Application of the group III-specific mGluR agonist L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (100 microM) reversibly inhibited voltage-gated calcium currents isolated from DiI-labeled aortic baroreceptor neurons and unlabeled nodose neurons. The results of this study suggest that group III mGluRs are the primary mGluR subtype expressed in visceral afferent neurons and that these receptors may be involved in afferent central transmission.
The identification of the specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes that are involved in estrogen protection from hypertension and their specific locations in the central nervous system is critical to our understanding and design of effective estrogen replacement therapies in women. Using selective ER agonists and recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying small interference (si) RNA to silence either ERα (AAV-siRNA-ERα) or ERβ (AAV-siRNA-ERβ), the present study investigated regional specificity of different ER subtypes in the protective actions of estrogen in aldosterone (Aldo)-induced hypertension. Intracerebroventricular infusions of either diarylpropionitrile, a selective ERβ agonist, or propyl-pyrazole-triol, a selective ERα agonist, attenuated Aldo/NaCl-induced hypertension in ovariectomized rats. In contrast, intracerebroventricular injections of siRNA-ERα or siRNA-ERβ augmented Aldo-induced hypertension in intact females. Site-specific paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM) injections of siRNA-ERβ augmented Aldo-induced hypertension. However, rats with PVN or RVLM injections of siRNA-ERα did not significantly increase blood pressure induced by Aldo. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of the PVN and RVLM of siRNA-injected rat confirmed a marked reduction in the expression of ERα and ERβ. In cultured PVN neurons, silencing either ERα or ERβ by culturing PVN neurons with siRNA-ERα or siRNA-ERβ enhanced Aldo-induced reactive oxygen species production. Ganglionic blockade after Aldo infusion showed an increase in sympathetic activity in ERβ knockdown rats. These results indicate that both PVN and RVLM ERβ, but not ERα in these nuclei, contribute to the protective effects of estrogen against Aldo-induced hypertension. The brain regions responsible for the protective effects of estrogen interaction with ERα in Aldo-induced hypertension still need to be determined.
This study was designed to determine if arginine vasopressin (AVP) facilitates the response of nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) neurons to baroreceptor input. In anesthetized sinoaortic-denervated vagotomized rabbits, AVP was intravenously infused (15 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), 1 min) or microinjected into the area postrema (AP; 1 ng/nl, 10 nl). Extracellular recordings of evoked NTS neuronal responses to electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve (ADN) or vagus nerve (1 Hz, 2-20 V, 0.05-0.6 ms) were evaluated before and after AVP administration. In neurons receiving input from the ADN (n = 19), 58% of them increased their responses after AVP (40.3 +/- 5.0 to 71.5 +/- 4,8%, P 0.05), but increased neuronal activity in 54% of neurons (6.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 13.1 +/- 1.7 spikes/s, P