There is extensive evidence that activation of the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the ability of the adaptive immune system to induce Ang II-dependent hypertension and whether central and renal T-cell infiltration during Ang II-induced hypertension is sex dependent. Recombinant activating gene-1 (Rag-1)(-/-) mice, lacking both T and B cells, were used. Male and female Rag-1(-/-) mice received adoptive transfer of male CD3(+) T cells 3 weeks before 14-day Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute). Blood pressure was monitored via tail cuff. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to Ang II were similar between sexes (Δ22.1 mm Hg males versus Δ18 mm : Hg females). After adoptive transfer of male T cells, Ang II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in males (Δ37.7 mm : Hg; P
In previous studies we have observed that chronic neurosteroid 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one (5 alpha 3 alpha) treatment produced downregulation of the GABAA receptors, heterologous uncoupling, and decreased heterologous efficacy at the GABAA receptor complex in cultured mammalian cortical neurons. In this study, using whole cell recording, we examined the consequence of chronic 5 alpha 3 alpha (1 microM; 5 days) treatment on GABA-induced currents in isolated cortical neurons. We observed that the GABA current was decreased by 78% after 5 days treatment of cortical cells with 1 microM 5 alpha 3 alpha. We also observed decreased pentobarbital, and 5 alpha 3 alpha potentiation of GABA currents after chronic 5 alpha 3 alpha treatment. These findings support the notion that GABA response, and its potentiation by pentobarbital, and neurosteroid, 5 alpha 3 alpha, are attenuated after chronic 5 alpha 3 alpha treatment.
1. Neurons of the nodose ganglia provide the sole connection between many types of visceral sensory inputs and the central nervous system. Electrophysiological studies of isolated nodose neurons provide a practical means of measuring individual cell membrane currents and assessing their putative contributions to the overall response properties of the neuron and its terminations. Here, we present a comprehensive mathematical model of an isolated nodose sensory neuron that is based upon numerical fits to quantitative voltage- and current-clamp data recorded in our laboratory. Model development was accomplished using an iterative process of electrophysiological recordings, nonlinear parameter estimation, and computer simulation. This work is part of an integrative effort aimed at identifying and characterizing the fundamental ionic mechanisms participating in the afferent neuronal limb of the baroreceptor reflex. 2. The neuronal model consists of two parts: a Hodgkin-Huxley-type membrane model coupled to a lumped fluid compartment model that describes Ca2+ ion concentration dynamics within the intracellular and external perineuronal media. Calcium buffering via a calmodulin-type buffer is provided within the intracellular compartment. 3. The complete model accurately reproduces whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of the major ion channel currents observed in enzymatically dispersed nodose sensory neurons. Specifically, two Na+ currents exhibiting fast (INaf) and slow tetrodotoxin (TTX)-insensitive (INas) kinetics; low- and high-threshold Ca2+ currents exhibiting transient (ICa,t) and long-lasting (ICa,n) dynamics, respectively; and outward K+ currents consisting of a delayed-rectifier current (IK), a transient outward current (I(t)) and a Ca(2+)-activated K+ current (IK,Ca). 4. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings of somatic action-potential dynamics were performed on enzymatically dispersed nodose neurons using the perforated patch-clamp technique. Stimulus protocols consisted of both short ( or = 200 ms) duration current pulses over a wide range of membrane holding potentials. These studies clearly revealed two populations of nodose neurons, often termed A- and C-type cells, which exhibit markedly different action-potential signatures and stimulus response properties. 5. Using a single set of equations, the model accurately reproduces the electrical behavior of both A- and C-type nodose neurons in response to a wide variety of stimulus conditions and membrane holding potentials. The structure of the model, as well as the majority of its parameters are the same for both A- and C-type implementations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)