There is extensive evidence that activation of the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the ability of the adaptive immune system to induce Ang II-dependent hypertension and whether central and renal T-cell infiltration during Ang II-induced hypertension is sex dependent. Recombinant activating gene-1 (Rag-1)(-/-) mice, lacking both T and B cells, were used. Male and female Rag-1(-/-) mice received adoptive transfer of male CD3(+) T cells 3 weeks before 14-day Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute). Blood pressure was monitored via tail cuff. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to Ang II were similar between sexes (Δ22.1 mm Hg males versus Δ18 mm : Hg females). After adoptive transfer of male T cells, Ang II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in males (Δ37.7 mm : Hg; P
Estrogen facilitates baroreflex heart rate responses evoked by intravenous infusion of ANG II and phenylephrine (PE) in ovariectomized female mice. The present study aims to identify the estrogen receptor subtype involved in mediating these effects of estrogen. Baroreflex responses to PE, ANG II, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were tested in intact and ovariectomized estrogen receptor-alpha knockout (ERalphaKO) with (OvxE+) or without (OvxE-) estrogen replacement. Wild-type (WT) females homozygous for the ERalpha(+/+) were used as controls. Basal mean arterial pressures (MAP) and heart rates were comparable in all the groups except the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ mice. This group had significantly smaller resting MAP, suggesting an effect of estrogen on resting vascular tone possibly mediated by the ERbeta subtype. Unlike the WT females, estrogen did not facilitate baroreflex heart rate responses to either PE or ANG II in the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ mice. The slope of the line relating baroreflex heart rate decreases with increases in MAP evoked by PE was comparable in ERalphaKO-OvxE- (-6.97 +/- 1.4 beats.min(-1).mmHg(-1)) and ERalphaKO-OvxE+ (-6.18 +/- 1.3) mice. Likewise, the slope of the baroreflex bradycardic responses to ANG II was similar in ERalphaKO-OvxE- (-3.87 +/- 0.5) and ERalphaKO-OvxE+(-2.60 +/- 0.5) females. Data suggest that estrogen facilitation of baroreflex responses to PE and ANG II is predominantly mediated by ERalpha subtype. A second important observation in the present study is that the slope of ANG II-induced baroreflex bradycardia is significantly blunted compared with PE in the intact as well as the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ females. We have previously reported that this ANG II-mediated blunting of cardiac baroreflexes is observed only in WT males and not in ovariectomized WT females independent of their estrogen replacement status. The present data suggest that in females lacking ERalpha, ANG II causes blunting of cardiac baroreflexes similar to males and may be indicative of a direct modulatory effect of the ERalpha on those central mechanisms involved in ANG II-induced resetting of cardiac baroreflexes. These observations suggest an important role for ERalpha subtype in the central modulation of baroreflex responses. Lastly, estrogen did not significantly affect reflex tachycardic responses to SNP in both WT and ERalphaKO mice.
Whole-cell and single channel recordings were used to characterize the effects of the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) on cardiac sensory neurons (CSN) of the nodose ganglia. Application of 10 nM CsA resulted in a 29.1% decrease in CSN input resistance and an average -8+/-3 mV hyperpolarization of membrane potential. Application of 10 nM CsA had no effect on evoked Ca++ currents but increased evoked K+ currents by 158.9+/-24%. Application of 10 nM CsA significantly increased the open probability of KCa channels by 183+/-9%. These results suggest that application of CsA results in the activation of KCa channels in cardiac sensory neurons and this effect may contribute to the cellular mechanisms underlying CsA modulation of vagal afferent neurons.
1. Precise control over the cardiovascular system requires the integration of both neural and humoral signals related to blood volume and blood pressure. Humoral signals interact with neural systems, modulating their control over the efferent mechanisms that ultimately determine the level of pressure and volume. 2. Peptide hormones such as angiotensin (Ang)II and arginine vasopressin (AVP) act through circumventricular organs (CVO) to influence cardiovascular regulation. 3. The area postrema (AP), a CVO in the brainstem, mediates at least some of the central actions of these peptides. Vasopressin appears to act in the AP to cause sympathoinhibition and a shift in baroreflex control of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to lower pressures. These effects of AVP and the AP appear to be mediated by alpha2-adrenoceptor and glutamatergic mechanisms in the nucleus tractus solitarius. 4. In contrast to AVP AngII has effects in the AP to blunt baroreflex control of heart rate and cause sympathoexcitation. The effects of chronic AngII to increase activity of the SNS may be due to AP-dependent activation of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.