Peter C Ellsworth
Professor, Entomology
Specialist, BIO5
Specialist, Entomology
Professor, Entomology / Insect Science - GIDP
Primary Department
Department Affiliations
(520) 374-6225
Work Summary
Peter Ellsworth is working to develop science-based solutions for integrated pest management through applied ecological investigations and organized outreach programs of Cooperative Extension, with principal focus on cotton; Integrated whitefly, Lygus, and pink bollworm management in cotton.
Research Interest
Peter Ellsworth, PhD, has broad interests in insect-crop interactions and applied insect ecology with particular emphasis on those aspects, which may be exploited for sound ecological and economical pest management. His responsibilities are to develop science-based solutions for integrated pest management through applied ecological investigations and organized outreach programs of Cooperative Extension, with principal focus on Bemisia tabaci, Lygus hesperus and Pectinophora gossypiella in the cotton agroecosystem, other field crops, and new crops as well as in cross-commodity interactions. In addition, Dr. Ellsworth is interested in insect phenology, diapause, insect-water relations, predictive modeling, pest biology, sampling, thresholds, and damage dynamics.As Director of the multi-disciplinary Arizona Pest Management Center, Dr. Ellsworth helps manage the institution's NIFA Extension IPM grant, serves as the state's federal IPM Coordinator and Pesticide Coordinator, and oversees and helps organize teams of research and extension faculty for the betterment of the science and application of IPM in Arizona.

Publications

Asiimwe, P., Ellsworth, P. C., & Naranjo, S. E. (2016). Natural enemy impacts on Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) dominate plant quality effects in the cotton system. ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, 41(5), 642-652.
Asiimwe, P., Ellsworth, P. C., & Naranjo, S. E. (2013). Relative influence of plant quality and natural enemies on the seasonal dynamics of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in cotton. Journal of economic entomology, 106(3).

The abundance and distribution of insect herbivores is determined by, among other things, plant quality and natural enemies. These two factors vary temporally and spatially, subsequently affecting seasonal population dynamics. The relative influence of plant quality and natural enemies on the seasonal dynamics of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) was investigated in a 3-yr field study in cotton. Plant quality was manipulated through varying irrigation regimes: irrigations done at 20, 40, and 60% soil water depletions; and natural enemy densities were manipulated using broad spectrum insecticide applications that reduced their densities compared with unsprayed controls. In each year, densities of B. tabaci eggs, large nymphs and adults were consistently higher when natural enemy densities were reduced compared with when they were left unaltered, regardless of irrigation regime. In contrast, effects of plant quality on densities of all whitefly stages were weak and inconsistent. In addition, natural enemy densities and predator:prey ratios also were not generally affected by plant quality. Interactions between natural enemies and plant quality on whitefly dynamics were rare. In general, whitefly densities were elevated two-thirds of the time and increased two- to sixfold when natural enemy densities were reduced compared with plant quality effects which influenced whitefly densities about one-third of the time and were expressed inconsistently over the years. This indicates that natural enemies exert a comparatively greater influence on seasonal dynamics of B. tabaci in cotton than plant quality, as manipulated by differential irrigation.

Naranjo, S. E., Ellsworth, P. C., & Frisvold, G. B. (2015). Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems. Annual review of entomology, 60, 621-45.

Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

Ellsworth, P., Ellsworth, P. C., Li, X., Degain, B. A., Harpold, V. S., Marçon, P. G., Nichols, R. L., Fournier, A. J., Naranjo, S. E., & Palumbo, J. C. (2012). Baseline susceptibilities of B- and Q-biotype Bemisia tabaci to anthranilic diamides in Arizona. Pest management science, 68(1).
BIO5 Collaborators
Peter C Ellsworth, Xianchun Li

Development of pyriproxyfen and neonicotinoid resistance in the B-biotype whitefly and recent introduction of the Q biotype have the potential to threaten current whitefly management programs in Arizona. The possibility of integrating the novel anthranilic diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole into the current program to tackle these threats largely depends on whether these compounds have cross-resistance with pyriproxyfen and neonicotinoids in whiteflies. To address this question, the authors bioassayed a susceptible B-biotype strain, a pyriproxyfen-resistant B-biotype strain, four multiply resistant Q-biotype strains and 16 B-biotype field populations from Arizona with a systemic uptake bioassay developed in the present study.

Naranjo, S. E., & Ellsworth, P. C. (2017). Methodology for Developing Life Tables for Sessile Insects in the Field Using the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in Cotton As a Model System. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

Life tables provide a means of measuring the schedules of birth and death from populations over time. They also can be used to quantify the sources and rates of mortality in populations, which has a variety of applications in ecology, including agricultural ecosystems. Horizontal, or cohort-based, life tables provide for the most direct and accurate method of quantifying vital population rates because they follow a group of individuals in a population from birth to death. Here, protocols are presented for conducting and analyzing cohort-based life tables in the field that takes advantage of the sessile nature of the immature life stages of a global insect pest, Bemisia tabaci. Individual insects are located on the underside of cotton leaves and are marked by drawing a small circle around the insect with a non-toxic pen. This insect can then be observed repeatedly over time with the aid of hand lenses to measure development from one stage to the next and to identify stage-specific causes of death associated with natural and introduced mortality forces. Analyses explain how to correctly measure multiple mortality forces that act contemporaneously within each stage and how to use such data to provide meaningful population dynamic metrics. The method does not directly account for adult survival and reproduction, which limits inference to dynamics of immature stages. An example is presented that focused on measuring the impact of bottom-up (plant quality) and top-down (natural enemies) effects on the mortality dynamics of B. tabaci in the cotton system.