Scott B Going
Objective: This study examined dieting, weight perceptions, and self-efficacy to eat healthy foods and engage in physical activity and their relationships to weight status and gender among American Indian elementary schoolchildren. Data for this study were collected as part of the baseline examination for the Pathways study. Participants were 1441 second-through third-grade American Indian children in 41 schools representing seven tribes in Arizona, New Mexico, and South Dakota who filled out a questionnaire and had heights and weights taken. Forty-two percent of the children were overweight or obese. No differences were found between overweight/ obese and normal weight children for healthy food intentions or self-efficacy. Heavier children (especially those with body mass index > 95th percentile) were more likely to have tried to lose weight or were currently trying to lose weight. No gender differences were found. Normal weight children chose a slightly heavier body size as most healthy compared with overweight/obese children. The results indicate that children are concerned about their weight and that weight modification efforts are common among overweight American Indian children. School, community, and family-based programs are needed to help young people adopt lifelong healthful eating and physical activity practices.
Healthy nonsmoking postmenopausal women (n = 242; ages 40-66 y) were included in the Bone, Estrogen, and Strength Training (BEST) Study. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at five sites (lumbar spine L2-L4, trochanter, femur neck, Ward's triangle and total body) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean nutrient intakes were assessed using a 3-d diet record. Regression models were calculated using each BMD site as the dependent variable and iron as the independent variable. Covariates included in the models were years past menopause, fat-free mass, fat mass, use of hormone replacement therapy, total energy intake and dietary intake of protein and calcium. Using linear models, iron was associated with greater BMD at all sites (P ≤ 0.01), even after adjusting for protein and/or calcium. Increasing levels of iron intake (>20 mg) were associated with greater BMD at several bone sites among women with a mean calcium intake of 800-1200 mg/d. Elevated iron intake was not associated with greater BMD among women with higher (>1200 mg/d) or lower calcium intakes (