PMID: 18464924;PMCID: PMC2367384;Abstract:
To identify key regulators of subminimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) antibiotic response in the Pasteurella multocida proteome, we applied systems approaches. Using 2D-LC-ESI-MS2, we achieved 53% proteome coverage. To study the differential protein expression in response to sub-MIC antibiotics in the context of protein interaction networks, we inferred P. multocida Pm70 protein interaction network from orthologous proteins. We then overlaid the differential protein expression data onto the P. multocida protein interaction network to study the bacterial response. We identified proteins that could enhance antimicrobial activity. Overall compensatory response to antibiotics was characterized by altered expression of proteins involved in purine metabolism, stress response, and cell envelope permeability.
The adaptation of medical diagnostic applications into micrototal analytical systems (μTAS) has the potential to improve the ease, accessibility and rapidity of medical diagnostics. This work adapts direct current dielectrophoresis (DC-DEP) to a medical diagnostic application of sorting blood cells where an insulating obstacle is used to produce a non-uniform electric field. Initial efforts are focused on achieving separation of positive ABO red blood cells. Two dependencies will simultaneously be explored: blood type and blood cell size. Fluorescent polystyrene particles of three different sizes will be tested and compared against the separation and collection of actual blood cells into different sample bins. Further, continuous separation of red blood cells according to blood types and collection into specific bins will be explored. This developed technique is directly applicable for use in a portable device for easy and rapid blood diagnostics.
Maternal antibodies are transferred from hens to the chicks via the egg. To gain insight into maternal antibody transfer and endogenous production of antibodies in broiler chicks, total IgY, IgA, IgM, as well as anti-Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and anti-infectious bronchitis (IBV) antibody levels were examined in the dams' plasma, egg yolks, egg whites, and chicks' plasma on d 3, 7, 14, and 21. Blood was collected from 39-wk-old breeder hens (line 1, n = 17; line 2, n = 21). Fertile eggs were used for antibody extraction from the egg yolks and egg whites (4 to 5 eggs/dam) and for hatching. Unvaccinated chicks (4 to 5 chicks/dam) were reared in a HEPA-filtered room and were bled on d 3, 7, 14 and 21. Based on ELISA methods, plasma levels of IgY and IgM were higher (P
The Harderian gland (HG), a sero-mucous secreting organ in the eye orbit, has long been recognized as immunologically important in chickens. During experimentation to characterize immune components of the gland, proteomics analysis revealed the presence of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS). Extraction of total RNA followed by RT-PCR produced cDNA of 597 base pairs. DNA sequencing revealed nucleic acid and predicted amino acid sequences that were 99% aligned with the one published sequence for chicken H-PGDS of the spleen. Alignment with murine, rat, and human H-PGDS were 69, 69, and 66%, respectively. Ocular vaccination of chickens with a Newcastle Disease/Infectious Bronchitis vaccine (Mass.-Ark. Strain) induced an increase in H-PGDS expression determined by real-time PCR. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry of frozen HG sections showed positive stained cells for both H-PGDS and mast cell tryptase in the sub-epithelial cell layers of the HG ducts. Based on the potent vasoactive role of PGD2, it appears that the chicken HG is a site of active mucosal immunity partially mediated by PGD2 synthesized by H-PGDS in the gland. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Differential detergent fractionation (DDF), which relies on detergents to sequentially extract proteins from eukaryotic cells, has been used to increase proteome coverage of 2D-PAGE. Here, we used DDF extraction in conjunction with the nonelectrophoretic proteomics method of liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that DDF can be used with 2D-LC ESI MS 2 for comprehensive cellular proteomics, including a large proportion of membrane proteins. Compared to some published methods designed to isolate membrane proteins specifically, DDF extraction yields comprehensive proteomes which include twice as many membrane proteins. Two-thirds of these membrane proteins have more than one trans-membrane domain. Since DDF separates proteins based upon their physicochemistry and subcellular localization, this method also provides data useful for functional genome annotation. As more genome sequences are completed, methods which can aid in functional annotation will become increasingly important. © 2005 American Chemical Society.