Andrew P Capaldi

Andrew P Capaldi

Associate Professor, Molecular and Cellular Biology
Associate Professor, Genetics - GIDP
Associate Professor, BIO5 Institute
Primary Department
(520) 626-9376

Research Interest

Andrew Capaldi, PhD, researches the signaling pathways and transcription factors in a cell that are organized into circuits. They allow cells to process information and make decisions. For Dr. Capaldi, the work arises in understanding both how these circuits are built from their components, and how they function and malfunction. To address these questions, he is working to reverse engineer the circuitry that controls cell growth in budding yeast using a combination of genomic, proteomic and computational methods.


Buchan, J. R., Capaldi, A. P., & Parker, R. (2012). TOR-tured yeast find a new way to stand the heat. Molecular cell, 47(2), 155-7.
BIO5 Collaborators
Ross Buchan, Andrew P Capaldi

In this issue, Takahara and Maeda (2012) discover that together, Pbp1 and sequestration of the TORC1 complex in cytoplasmic mRNP stress granules provides a negative regulatory mechanism for TORC1 signaling during stress.

Capaldi, A., & Capaldi, A. P. (2010). Analysis of gene function using DNA microarrays. Methods in enzymology, 470.

This chapter provides a guide to analyzing gene function using DNA microarrays. First, I discuss the design and interpretation of experiments where gene expression levels in mutant and wild-type strains are compared. I then provide a detailed description of the protocols for isolating mRNA from yeast cells, converting the RNA into dye-labeled cDNA, and hybridizing these samples to a microarray. Finally, I discuss methods for washing, scanning, and analyzing the arrays. Emphasis is placed on describing approaches and techniques that help to minimize the artifacts and noise that so often plague microarray data.

Capaldi, A. P., Hughes Hallett, J., & Luo, X. (2015). Reversible Aggregation of the TOR Complex I protein Kog1 controls the threshold for growth initiation in budding yeast. eLife.
Friel, C. T., Capaldi, A. P., & Radford, S. E. (2003). Structural analysis of the rate-limiting transition states in the folding of Im7 and Im9: Similarities and differences in the folding of homologous proteins. Journal of Molecular Biology, 326(1), 293-305.

PMID: 12547210;Abstract:

The bacterial immunity proteins Im7 and Im9 fold with mechanisms of different kinetic complexity. Whilst Im9 folds in a two-state transition at pH 7.0 and 10°C, Im7 populates an on-pathway intermediate under these conditions. In order to assess the role of sequence versus topology in the folding of these proteins, and to analyse the effect of populating an intermediate on the landscape for folding, we have determined the conformational properties of the rate-limiting transition state for Im9 folding/unfolding using ΦF-value analysis and have compared the results with similar data obtained previously for Im7. The data show that the rate-limiting transition states for Im9 and Im7 folding/unfolding are similar: both are compact (βT=0.94 and 0.89, respectively) and contain three of the four native helices docked around a specific hydrophobic core. Significant differences are observed, however, in the magnitude of the ΦF-values obtained for the two proteins. Of the 20 residues studied in both proteins, ten have ΦF-values in Im7 that exceed those in Im9 by more than 0.2, and of these five differ by more than 0.4. The data suggest that the population of an intermediate in Im7 results in folding via a transition state ensemble that is conformationally restricted relative to that of Im9. The data are consistent with the view that topology is an important determinant of folding. Importantly, however, they also demonstrate that while the folding transition state may be conserved in homologous proteins that fold with two and three-state kinetics, the population of an intermediate can have a significant effect on the breadth of the transition state ensemble. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ferguson, N., Capaldi, A. P., James, R., Kleanthous, C., & Radford, S. E. (1999). Rapid folding with and without populated intermediates in the homologous four-helix proteins Im7 and Im9. Journal of Molecular Biology, 286(5), 1597-1608.

PMID: 10064717;Abstract:

The kinetics and thermodynamics of the folding of the homologous four-helix proteins Im7 and Im9 have been characterised at PH 7.0 and 10°C. These proteins are 60% identical in sequence and have the same three-dimensional structure, yet appear to fold by different kinetic mechanisms. The logarithm of the folding and unfolding rates of Im9 change linearly as a function of urea concentration and fit well to an equation describing a two-state mechanism (with a folding rate of 1500 s-1, an unfolding rate of 0.01 s-1, and a highly compact transition state that has ~95% of the native surface area buried). By contrast, there is clear evidence for the population of an intermediate during the refolding of Im7, as indicated by a change in the urea dependence of the folding rate and the presence of a significant burst phase amplitude in the refolding kinetics. Under stabilising conditions (0.25 M Na2SO4, pH 7.0 and 10°C) the folding of Im9 remains two-state, whilst under similar conditions (0.4 M Na2SO4, pH 7.0 and 10°C) the intermediate populated during Im7 refolding is significantly stabilised (K(UI) = 125). Equilibrium denaturation experiments, under the conditions used in the kinetic measurements, show that Im7 is significantly less stable than Im9 (ΔΔG 9.3 kJ/mol) and the ΔG and m values determined accord with those obtained from the fit to the kinetic data. The results show, therefore, that the population of an intermediate in the refolding of the immunity protein structure is defined by the precise amino acid sequence rather than the global stability of the protein. We discuss the possibility that the intermediate of Im7 is populated due to differences in helix propensity in Im7 and Im9 and the relevance of these data to the folding of helical proteins in general.