Variable drug responses depend on individual variation in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP). As the most common chronic liver disease in children and adults, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been identified as a source of significant interindividual variation in hepatic drug metabolism. Compared with adults, children present age-related differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of fatty liver disease severity on the activity of a variety of CYP enzymes in children and adolescents. Healthy and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pediatric subjects aged 12-21 years inclusive received an oral cocktail of four probe drugs: caffeine (CYP1A2, 100 mg), omeprazole (CYP2C19, 20 mg), losartan (CYP2C9, 25 mg), and midazolam (CYP3A4, 2 mg). Venous blood and urine were collected before administration and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after administration. Concentrations of the parent drugs and CYP-specific metabolites were quantified in plasma and urine using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. In plasma, the decreased metabolic area under the curve (AUC) ratio, defined as the metabolite AUC to parent AUC, of omeprazole indicated significant decreases of CYP2C19 (P = 0.002) enzymatic activities in NASH adolescents, while the urine analyses did not show significant differences and were highly variable. A comparison between the present in vivo pediatric studies and a previous ex vivo study in adults indicates distinct differences in the activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9. These data demonstrate that pediatric NASH presents an altered pattern of CYP activity and NASH should be considered as a confounder of drug metabolism for certain CYP enzymes. These differences could lead to future investigations that may reveal unexpected variable drug responses that should be considered in pediatric dosage recommendations.
The multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps) are a family of adenosine triphosphate-dependent transporters that facilitate the movement of various compounds, including bile acids, out of hepatocytes. The current study was conducted to determine whether induction of these transporters alters bile acid disposition as a means of hepatoprotection during bile acid-induced cholestasis. Lithocholic acid (LCA) was used to induce intrahepatic cholestasis. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with corn oil (CO) or known transporter inducers, phenobarbital (PB), oltipraz (OPZ), or TCPOBOP (TC) for 3 days prior to cotreatment with LCA and inducer for 4 days. Histopathology revealed that PB and TC pretreatments provide a protective effect from LCA-induced toxicity, whereas OPZ pretreatment did not. Both PB/LCA and TC/LCA cotreatment groups also had significantly lower alanine aminotransferase values than the LCA-only group. In TC/LCA cotreated mice compared with LCA only, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of uptake transporters Ntcp and Oatp4 was significantly increased, as were sinusoidal efflux transporters Mrp3 and Mrp4. Although in PB/LCA cotreated mice, the only significant change compared with LCA-only treatment was an increase in uptake transporter Oatp4. Oatp1 was reduced in all groups compared with CO controls. No significant changes in mRNA expression were observed in Oatp2, Bsep, Mrp2, Bcrp, Mrp1, Mrp5, or Mrp6. Mrp4 protein expression was induced in the OPZ/LCA and TC/LCA cotreated groups, whereas Mrp3 protein levels remained unchanged between groups. Protein expression of Mrp1 and Mrp5 was increased in the unprotected LCA-only and OPZ/LCA mice. Thus, transporter expression did not correlate with histologic hepatoprotection, however, there was a correlation between hepatoprotection and significantly reduced total liver bile acids in the PB/LCA and TC/LCA cotreated mice compared with LCA only. In conclusion, changes in transporter expression did not correlate with hepatoprotection, and therefore, transport may not play a critical role in the observed hepatoprotection from LCA-induced cholestasis in the C57BL/6 mouse.
Pharmacological activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) protects the liver during cholestasis. The current study evaluates how activation of CAR influences genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection during bile acid-induced liver injury. CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) or corn oil (CO) were administered to C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CAR knockout (CAR-null) mice before and during induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA). In LCA-treated WT and all the CAR-null groups (excluding controls), histology revealed severe multifocal necrosis. This pathology was absent in WT mice pretreated with PB and TCPOBOP, indicating CAR-dependent hepatoprotection. Decreases in total hepatic bile acids and hepatic monohydroxy, dihydroxy, and trihydroxy bile acids in PB- and TCPOBOP-pretreated WT mice correlated with hepatoprotection. In comparison, concentrations of monohydroxylated and dihydroxylated bile acids were increased in all the treated CAR-null mice compared with CO controls. Along with several other enzymes (Cyp7b1, Cyp27a1, Cyp39a1), Cyp8b1 expression was increased in hepatoprotected mice, which could be suggestive of a shift in the bile acid biosynthesis pathway toward the formation of less toxic bile acids. In CAR-null mice, these changes in gene expression were not different among treatment groups. These results suggest CAR mediates a shift in bile acid biosynthesis toward the formation of less toxic bile acids, as well as a decrease in hepatic bile acid concentrations. We propose that these combined CAR-mediated effects may contribute to the hepatoprotection observed during LCA-induced liver injury.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (SFL model) or a methionine-choline-deficient diet (NASH model) for eight weeks. Hepatic uptake transporter function was determined by bromosulfophthalein (BSP) disposition. Transporter expression was determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and western blotting; inflammation was identified by immunostaining of liver slices for interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta). MC- rats showed significant retention of BSP in the plasma when compared to control rats. Hepatic NTCP, OATP1a1, 1a4, 1b2 and 2b1; and OAT 2 and 3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in high-fat and MC- diet rats when compared to control. Protein expression of OATP1a1 was significantly decreased in high-fat animals, while OATP1a1 and OATP1b2 expressions were significantly lower in MC- rats when compared to control. Liver tissue from high-fat and MC- rats stained positive for IL-1beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to decrease expression of NTCP, OATP and OAT transporters, suggesting a plausible mechanism for the observed transporter alterations. These data suggest that different stages of NAFLD result in altered hepatic uptake transporter expression that can lead to a functional impairment of xenobiotic uptake from the blood. Furthermore, NAFLD may alter the plasma retention time of clinically relevant drugs that are reliant on these transporters and may increase the potential drug toxicity.
Efflux transporters are responsible for the excretion of numerous xenobiotics and endobiotics and thus play an essential role in proper liver and kidney function. Nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLDs) comprise a spectrum of disorders that range from simple fatty liver (SFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although the precise events leading to NAFLD are unclear, even less is known about the effects on efflux transporter expression and drug disposition. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of NAFLD on efflux transporter expression in rat liver as well as on acetaminophen (APAP) metabolite excretion. To simulate SFL and NASH, rats were fed either a high-fat (HF) or a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks. In the livers of MCD rats, there were striking increases in both mRNA and protein levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) 3, Mrp4, and breast cancer resistance protein, as well as increased Mrp2 protein. After administration of a nontoxic dose of APAP, biliary concentrations of APAP-sulfate, APAP-glucuronide (APAP-GLUC), and APAP-glutathione were reduced in MCD rats. The effects of the HF diet on both transporter expression and APAP disposition were by comparison far less dramatic than the MCD diet-induced alterations. Whereas APAP-sulfate levels were also decreased in MCD rat plasma, the levels of the Mrp3 substrate APAP-GLUC were elevated. Urinary elimination of APAP metabolites was identical between groups, except for APAP-GLUC, the concentration of which was 80% higher in MCD rats. These studies correlate increased hepatic Mrp3 protein in the MCD model of NASH with increased urinary elimination of APAP-GLUC. Furthermore, the proportional shift in elimination of APAP metabolites from bile to urine indicates that MCD-induced alterations in efflux transporter expression can affect the route of drug elimination.