A facile and expeditious synthetic approach to α-ketoamides 3 is described. A series of α-ketoamides 3 was synthesized via reaction of selenium dioxide-mediated oxidative amidation between arylglyoxals 1 and secondary amines 2, and accelerated with microwave irradiation. Our findings indicate that constrained amines, such as piperazine and piperidine exhibit higher conversions for this transformation. This reaction was explored by synthesizing a series of α-ketoamides 3 from various arylglyoxals with cyclic and acyclic secondary amines.
Some new di- and trisubstituted imidazole-4-carboxylates were prepared from amidoacetic acids 3 in the present report. The key step to establish such imidazole- 4-carboxylates stemmed from the PBu3-mediated [3+2] cycloaddition between in situ-generated Δ2-oxazolinone 4 and ethyl cyanoformate6. Our results indicated that trisubstituted imidazoles 7-20 were afforded in better yields than those of disubstituted imidazoles 21-27. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Synthetic Communications1 to view the free supplemental file. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Grade IV glioblastoma is characterized by increased kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); however, EGFR kinase inhibitors have failed to improve survival in individuals with this cancer because resistance to these drugs often develops. We showed that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) produced in the glioblastoma microenvironment activated atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), thereby producing resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors. Additionally, we identified that aPKC was required both for paracrine TNFα-dependent activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and for tumor cell-intrinsic receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Targeting aPKC decreased tumor growth in mouse models of glioblastoma, including models of EGFR kinase inhibitor-resistant glioblastoma. Furthermore, aPKC abundance and activity were increased in human glioblastoma tumor cells, and high aPKC abundance correlated with poor prognosis. Thus, targeting aPKC might provide an improved molecular approach for glioblastoma therapy.
Two novel one-step microwave mediated syntheses of arrays of 3-iminoaryl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and imidazo[1,2-a]pyridyn-3-ylamino-2- acetonitriles are reported. Reactions are performed under microwave condition in methanol by simply mixing α-amino-pyridines, aldehydes, and trimethylsilylcyanide (TMSCN) with distinct reagent stoichiometries, catalyzed by polymer-bound scandium triflate, to afford either product. Furthermore, functionally different aldehydes were shown to proceed to different end-points, adding an extra caveat to the studies. The new methodology represents examples of both formal 3-center-4-component and 3-center-5-component multi-component reactions. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Concise routes to five pharmacologically relevant bis-heterocyclic scaffolds are described. Significant molecular complexity is generated in a mere two synthetic operations enabling access to each scaffold. Routes are often improved by microwave irradiation and all utilize isocyanide-based multi-component reaction methods to incorporate the required diversity elements. Common reagents in all initial condensation reactions include 2-(N-Boc-amino)-phenyl-isocyanide 1, mono-Boc-phenylenediamine 2 and ethyl glyoxalate 3. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.