Cui, J., Li, S., Spurgeon, D. W., Jia, W., Lu, Y., & Gouge, D. H. (2016). Flight capacity of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to gender and temperature. Southwestern Entomologist, 41(3), 667-674. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3958/059.041.0309
Gouge, D. H., Li, S., Nair, S., Pier, N., & Sumner, C. (2016). Mosquitoes and the Great Outdoors. Journal of Environmental Management Arizona, 5-6.
Gouge, D. H., Smith, K. A., Lee, L. L., & Henneberry, T. J. (2000). Effect of soil depth and moisture on the vertical distribution of Steinernema riobrave (Nematoda: Steinernematidae). Journal of Nematology, 32(2), 223-228.
PMID: 19270970;PMCID: PMC2620435;Abstract:
The effect of soil moisture on the distribution of Steinernema riobrave in a sand column was determined. Larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella were used to detect S. riobrave infective juveniles (IJ) in each 2.5-cm section of 30-cm-long soil columns. Soil moisture was determined for each section and related to the numbers of nematodes recovered from infected insect baits. Infective juveniles of S. riobrave applied on the sand column surface showed some degree of positive geotaxis. IJ in soil columns with a consistent moisture gradient grouped in the upper 12.7 cm within a water potential range of -40 to -0.0055 MPa (2% to 14% moisture). Nematodes in sand columns that were gradually dehydrating moved down the soil column, aggregating on the 28th day between 15-23 cm in depth. Nematode redistribution over time allowed IJ to remain within a water potential range of -0.1 to -0.012 MPa (5.2% to 9.5% moisture).
Gouge, D. H., Gouge, D. H., Snyder, J. L., & Snyder, J. L. (2006). Temporal association of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) and bacteria. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 91(3), 147-157.
Galleria mellonella L. larvae were infected with three species (seven strains) of Steinernema spp. or three species (three strains) of Heterorhabditis spp. Infected larvae were incubated at 22, 27, and 32°C. Larvae were dorsally dissected every 6 h over a 48-h period. Hemolymph was collected and streaked on tryptic soy agar plates. Several non-symbiotic bacterial species were identified from infected insect cadavers: Enterobacter gergoviae, Vibrio spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens type C, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia proteomaculans. At 18-24 h incubation, the nematode-associated symbiont occurred almost exclusively. Bacterial associates generally appeared outside the 18-24 h window. Infective juveniles of Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (27), Steinernema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar, and Raulston (Oscar), or Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Kapow) were left untreated, or surface sterilized using thimerosal, then pipetted under sterile conditions onto tryptic soy agar plates. Several additional species of associated bacteria were identified using this method compared with the less extensive range of species isolated from infected G. mellonella. There was no difference in bacterial species identified from non-sterile or surface sterilized nematodes, suggesting that the bacteria identified originated from either inside the nematode or between second and third stage juvenile cuticles. Infective juveniles of S. feltiae (Cowles), S. carpocapsae (Cowles), and H. bacteriophora Poinar (Cowles) were isolated from field samples. Nematodes were surface-sterilized using sodium hypochlorite, mixed with G. mellonella hemolymph, and pipetted onto Biolog BUG (with blood) agar. Only the relevant symbionts were isolated from the limited number of samples available. The nematodes were then cultured in the laboratory for 14 months (sub-cultured in G. mellonella 7-times). Other Enterobacteriaceae could then be isolated from the steinernematid nematodes including S. marcescens, Salmonella sp., and E. gergoviae, indicating the ability of the nematodes to associate with other bacteria in laboratory culture. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yu, H., Gouge, D. H., & Baker, P. (2006). Parasitism of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermiddae: Termitidae) by entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae; Heterorhabditidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 99(4), 1112-1119.
In laboratory bioassays, Steinemema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar and Raulston (355 strain), Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Mexican 33 strain), Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (UK76 strain), and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (HP88 strain ) were all capable of infecting and killing three termite species, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), Gnathamitermes perplexus (Banks), and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) in laboratory sand assays. S. riobrave and S. feltiae caused low levels of Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) mortality under the same conditions. At 22°C, significant mortality (≥80%) of worker H. aureus and G. perplexus was caused by S. riobrave, in sand assays, indicating the need for further study. Because of the short assay time (3 d maximum), reproduction of the nematodes in the target host species was not recorded. All nematode species were observed to develop to fourth-stage juveniles, preadult stages, or adults in all termite species with the exception of R. virginicus. Only S. riobrave developed in R. virginicus. Nematode concentration and incubation time had significant effects on the mortality of worker H. aureus. S. riobrave consistently generated the highest infection levels and mortality of H. aureus in sand assays. © 2006 Entomological Society of America.