Eniko T Enikov

Eniko T Enikov

Professor, Aerospace-Mechanical Engineering
Associate Professor, BIO5 Institute
Department Affiliations
(520) 621-4506

Work Summary

Dr. Enikov's area of expertise is the design of micro-actuators, MEMS devices, and sensors. Ongoing projects include the production of Inflatable Drug-Delivery Stents through the process of Dynamic Stabilization of Electro-Spinning. The research will examine theoretically the feasibility of trapping charged fibers and will establish the required trapping parameters.

Research Interest

Dr. Enikov's area of expertise is the design of micro-actuators, MEMS devices, and sensors. After completion of his training, he established the Advanced Micro- and Nanosystems Laboratory at the University of Arizona, where they have carried out numerous research projects involving precision assembly of micro-systems under optical feedback, development of wet actuators using ion-exchange polymers, pressure sensors, and accelerometers. In the last 8-years, his research has applied micro-technology to the development of medical devices. More specifically, they have developed a through-the-eye lid tactile tonometer capable of estimating intraocular pressure using an array of MEMS sensors. A second invention pertains to the development of an implantable ventricular peritoneal shunt with flow sensing capabilities. The present project represents a major focus of his laboratory. They have completed several early-stage studies on tactile tonometery supporting the present application. Given Dr. Enikov's technical background and prior effort in the area of tactile tonometery, he believes he is uniquely qualified to lead the proposed effort.


Enikov, E. T., & Seo, G. S. (2006). Numerical analysis of muscle-like ionic polymer actuators. Biotechnology Progress, 22(1), 96-105.

PMID: 16454498;Abstract:

Ionic polymers are a promising material for the development of muscle-like actuators. These materials are capable of undergoing significant deformation when structured as metal-polymer-metal composite sheets. The mechanical characteristics of these sheets, such as flexibility, softness, and ability to undergo large deformation in direct contact with water, have led some to consider these as possible artificial muscles. This paper describes the numerical analysis of an electrochemical model of the deformation of muscle-like polymers. A general continuum model describing the transport and deformation processes of these actuators is briefly presented, along with a detailed description of the simulation scheme used to predict deformation, current, and mass transport. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data, indicating a significant role of water transport in the large-scale deformation. The model is also used to draw a comparison between the performance of natural muscles and muscle-like polymer actuators. © 2006 American Chemical Society and American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Enikov, E. T., Clark, S., & Minkov, L. (2003). Micro-assembly cell with dual optical/computer vision control for electrostatic gripping of MEMS. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 5267, 269-280.


This paper describes the development of a miniature assembly cell for microsystems. The cell utilizes a transparent electrostatic gripper allowing the use of computer vision for part alignment with respect to the gripper. Part to assembly alignment is achieved via optical triangulation using a fiber-coupled laser and a position sensitive detector (PSD). The system layout, principle of operation and design are described along with the visual and optical control algorithms and their implementation. Experimental measurements of the performance of the stage indicate normal and tangential gripping forces in the range of 0.03-2.5 mN and 1.-9. mN respectively. The visual search algorithm limits the feature tracking speed to 111ms /search. The alignment accuracy of the visual and optical proportional position feedback controls were determined to be ±7 μm and ±10 μm respectively.

Zhang, Z. M., Enikov, E. T., & Makansi, T. (2011). Near-field radiative transfer between heavily doped SiGe at elevated temperatures. ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE 2011, 10(PARTS A AND B), 283-291.


SiGe alloys represent an important type of high-temperature semiconductor material for solid-state energy conversion. In the present study, the near-field radiative heat transfer between heavily doped SiGe plates is investigated. A dielectric function model is formulated based on the previously reported room-temperature mobility and temperature-dependent electric resistivity of several silicon-rich alloys with different doping type and concentration. The fluctuational electrodynamics is used to evaluate the near-field noncontact heat transfer coefficient. The variation of the heat transfer coefficient with doping concentration and temperature is explained according to the change in the optical constants and in the spectral distribution of the near-field heat flux. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

Enikov, E. T., & Boyd, J. G. (2000). Electroplated electro-fluidic interconnects for chemical sensors. Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, 84(1), 161-164.


A wet chip electro-fluidic packaging technology based on electroplating is described. An electroplated gold seal provides the sensor's fluid connection to a silicon multi-chip module. A hermetic seal is obtained using the gold-silicon eutectic bond. The sensor's electrical connections to the multi-chip module are made by eutectic bonding electroplated gold-tin solder bumps on the sensor to gold pads on the substrate. The fluid and electrical connections are made simultaneously, and the process is compatible with the flip-chip bonding technique.