4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), an occupational chemical that targets ovarian follicles and accelerates ovarian failure in rodents, was used to test the effect of early-onset reproductive senescence on mammary fibroadenoma formation. One-month female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with VCD (80 mg/kg or 160 mg/kg) and monitored for 22 months for persistent estrus and tumor development. Only high-dose VCD treatment accelerated the onset of persistent estrus relative to controls. However, both doses of VCD accelerated mammary tumor onset by 5 months, increasing incidence to 84% (vs. 38% in controls). Tumor development was independent of time in persistent estrus, 17 β-estradiol, androstenedione and prolactin. Delay in VCD administration until after completion of mammary epithelial differentiation (3 months) did not alter tumor formation despite acceleration of ovarian senescence. VCD administration to 1-month rats acutely decreased mammary alveolar bud number and expression of β-casein, suggesting that VCD's tumorigenic effect requires exposure during mammary epithelial differentiation.
Previous work showed that retaining residual ovarian tissue protects young mice from accelerated bone loss following ovarian failure. The present study was designed to determine whether this protection is also present in aged animals. Aged (9-12 months) C57BL/6Hsd female mice were divided into: CON (vehicle), VCD (160 mg/kg; 15d), or OVX (ovariectomized). Lumbar BMD was monitored by DXA and μCT used to assess vertebral microarchitecture. BMD was not different between VCD and CON at any time point but was lower (P
Bone loss associated with menopause leads to an increase in skeletal fragility and fracture risk. Relevant animal models can be useful for evaluating the impact of ovarian failure on bone loss. A chemically induced model of menopause in which mice gradually undergo ovarian failure yet retain residual ovarian tissue has been developed using the chemical 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD). This study was designed to compare skeletal effects of VCD-induced ovarian failure to those associated with ovariectomy (OVX). Young (28 day) C57Bl/6Hsd female mice were dosed daily with vehicle or VCD (160 mg/kg/d, IP) for 15 days (n = 6-7/group) and monitored by vaginal cytology for ovarian failure. At the mean age of VCD-induced ovarian failure (approximately 6 wk after onset of dosing), a different group of mice was ovariectomized (OVX, n = 8). Spine BMD (SpBMD) was measured by DXA for 3 mo after ovarian failure and OVX. Mice were killed approximately 5 mo after ovarian failure or OVX, and bone architecture was evaluated by microCT ex vivo. In OVX mice, SpBMD was lower than controls 1 mo after OVX, whereas in VCD-treated mice, SpBMD was not lower than controls until 2.9 mo after ovarian failure (p
To determine whether parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), an interleukin-1beta-inducible, bone-resorbing peptide that is produced in increasing amounts by the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), may play a role in the pathophysiology of joint destruction in RA.
Effects of curcuminoids on breast cancer cell secretion of the bone-resorptive peptide parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and on lytic breast cancer bone metastasis were evaluated. In vitro, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-stimulated PTHrP secretion was inhibited by curcuminoids (IC50 = 24 μM) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells independent of effects on cell growth inhibition. Effects on TGF-β signaling revealed decreases in phospho-Smad2/3 and Ets-1 protein levels with no effect on p-38 MAPK-mediated TGF-β signaling. In vivo, mice were inoculated with MDA-MB-231 cells into the left cardiac ventricle and treated ip every other day with curcuminoids (25 or 50 mg/kg) for 21 days. Osteolytic bone lesion area was reduced up to 51% (p