Optical polarimetry is used in pharmaceutical drug testing and quality control for saccharide-containing products (juice, honey). More recently, it has been proposed as a method for noninvasive glucose sensing for diabetic patients. Sagnac interferometry is commonly used in optical gyroscopes, measuring minute Doppler shifts resulting from mechanical rotation. In this work, we demonstrate that Sagnac interferometers are also sensitive to optical rotation, or the rotation of linearly polarized light, and are therefore useful in optical polarimetry. Results from simulation and experiment show that Sagnac interferometers are advantageous in optical polarimetry as they are insensitive to net linear birefringence and alignment of polarization components.
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Optical coherence tomography has been used for the diagnosis of retinal disease and has been used experimentally for imaging of vascular plaques, gastrointestinal pathology, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and recently to examine benign kidney microanatomy. It has not been previously used to image kidney cancer. This study presents the first data on the utility of OCT in the imaging for renal neoplasms. It found that OCT was most successful in distinguishing AML and TCC from normal parenchyma. OCT had more limited success at differentiating oncocytoma. Clear cell tumors and other renal cancer subtypes had a more heterogenous appearance, precluding reliable identification using OCT. The study shows that higher resolution versions of OCT, such as OCM, will be needed to allow optical coherence imaging to reach clinical utility in the assessment of renal neoplasms.
Optical coherence tomography/laser induced fluorescence (OCT/LIF) dual-modality imaging allows for minimally invasive, nondestructive endoscopic visualization of colorectal cancer in mice. This technology enables simultaneous longitudinal tracking of morphological (OCT) and biochemical (fluorescence) changes as colorectal cancer develops, compared to current methods of colorectal cancer screening in humans that rely on morphological changes alone. We have shown that QDot655 targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (QD655-VEGFR2) can be applied to the colon of carcinogen-treated mice and provides significantly increased contrast between the diseased and undiseased tissue with high sensitivity and specificity ex vivo. QD655-VEGFR2 was used in a longitudinal in vivo study to investigate the ability to correlate fluorescence signal to tumor development. QD655-VEGFR2 was applied to the colon of azoxymethane (AOM-) or saline-treated control mice in vivo via lavage. OCT/LIF images of the distal colon were taken at five consecutive time points every three weeks after the final AOM injection. Difficulties in fully flushing unbound contrast agent from the colon led to variable background signal; however, a spatial correlation was found between tumors identified in OCT images, and high fluorescence intensity of the QD655 signal, demonstrating the ability to detect VEGFR2 expressing tumors in vivo.
Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the US largely due to late detection secondary to unreliable symptomology and screening tools without adequate resolution. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a recently emerging imaging modality with promise in ovarian cancer diagnostics, providing non-destructive subsurface imaging at imaging depths up to 2 mm with near-histological grade resolution (10-20 microm). In this study, we developed the first ever laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) device, evaluated the safety and feasibility of LOCT, and characterized the microstructural features of human ovaries in vivo.