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Assistant Professor, BIO5 Institute
Assistant Professor, Evelyn F Mcknight Brain Institute
Assistant Professor, Neurobiology
Associate Professor, Physiological Sciences - GIDP
Associate Professor, Neurology
The broad goal of Katalin Gothard's research is to understand the neural basis of emotion and social behavior. Her lab work reveals the real-time dynamic interactions in multiple systems implicated in emotion regulation and the mechanisms by which emotional responses produce immediate behavioral effects.
The broad goal of my research is to understand the neural basis of emotion and social behavior in non-human primates. Our laboratory pioneered multichannel neural recordings from the amygdala of monkeys engaged in naturalistic social interactions. Neural activity was monitored simultaneously with cardiovascular and other autonomic parameters of emotion to capture unique, coordinated brain-body states. These states, and the transitions between them, are the neural underpinnings of our emotional experiences and the memory thereof. I bring to BIO5 expertise from a broad and diverse range of sources. I earned a medical in Romania in 1988, followed by postgraduate training in neurosurgery, and a Ph.D. in Neuroscience in 1996 at the University of Arizona. As a student, I explored the neural dynamics of spatial learning and memory in rats and determine the interaction of multiple spatial reference frames during navigation. I completed by postdoctoral studies at the UC Davis in primate socio-emotional behavior and the neurophysiological basis of communication with facial expressions. While at Davis, I received a K01 career development award that allowed me to assemble the largest existent annotated video library of macaque social behavior. I used this library to probe the behavioral and neural events that are the basic building blocks of social behavior (e.g., eye contact, the reciprocation of facial expressions, and gaze following). We discovered a specialized class of cell in the monkey brain that are active exclusively in the context of natural social behaviors and respond selectively to eye contact. We have developed techniques of precisely targeted bilateral microinjections in the primate brain and implemented successfully neural recording and parallel with microinjections of drugs and hormones. Currently we are testing the effect of various drugs in the activity of eye cells in the amygdala.
Burke, S. N., Thome, A., Plange, K., Engle, J. R., Trouard, T. P., Gothard, K. M., & Barnes, C. A. (2014). Orbitofrontal cortex volume in area 11/13 predicts reward devaluation, but not reversal learning performance, in young and aged monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(30), 9905-9916.
Carol A Barnes, Katalin M Gothard
Gothard, K. M. (2014). The amygdalo-motor pathways and the control of facial expressions. Frontiers in neuroscience, 8, 43.
Facial expressions reflect decisions about the perceived meaning of social stimuli and the expected socio-emotional outcome of responding (or not) with a reciprocating expression. The decision to produce a facial expression emerges from the joint activity of a network of structures that include the amygdala and multiple, interconnected cortical and subcortical motor areas. Reciprocal transformations between these sensory and motor signals give rise to distinct brain states that promote, or impede the production of facial expressions. The muscles of the upper and lower face are controlled by anatomically distinct motor areas. Facial expressions engage to a different extent the lower and upper face and thus require distinct patterns of neural activity distributed across multiple facial motor areas in ventrolateral frontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, and two areas in the midcingulate cortex. The distributed nature of the decision manifests in the joint activation of multiple motor areas that initiate the production of facial expression. Concomitantly multiple areas, including the amygdala, monitor ongoing overt behaviors (the expression itself) and the covert, autonomic responses that accompany emotional expressions. As the production of facial expressions is brought into the framework of formal decision making, an important challenge will be to incorporate autonomic and visceral states into decisions that govern the receiving-emitting cycle of social signals.
Putnam, P. T., Roman, J. M., Zimmerman, P. E., & Gothard, K. M. (2016). Oxytocin enhances gaze-following responses to videos of natural social behavior in adult male rhesus monkeys. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 72, 47-53.
Gaze following is a basic building block of social behavior that has been observed in multiple species, including primates. The absence of gaze following is associated with abnormal development of social cognition, such as in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Some social deficits in ASD, including the failure to look at eyes and the inability to recognize facial expressions, are ameliorated by intranasal administration of oxytocin (IN-OT). Here we tested the hypothesis that IN-OT might enhance social processes that require active engagement with a social partner, such as gaze following. Alternatively, IN-OT may only enhance the perceptual salience of the eyes, and may not modify behavioral responses to social signals. To test this hypothesis, we presented four monkeys with videos of conspecifics displaying natural behaviors. Each video was viewed multiple times before and after the monkeys received intranasally either 50 IU of OT or saline. We found that despite a gradual decrease in attention to the repeated viewing of the same videos (habituation), IN-OT consistently increased the frequency of gaze following saccades. Further analysis confirmed that these behaviors did not occur randomly, but rather predictably in response to the same segments of the videos. These findings suggest that in response to more naturalistic social stimuli IN-OT enhances the propensity to interact with a social partner rather than merely elevating the perceptual salience of the eyes. In light of these findings, gaze following may serve as a metric for pro-social effects of oxytocin that target social action more than social perception.
Gothard, K. M. (2017). Bridging the gap between rodents and humans: The role of non-human primates in oxytocin research. American Journal of Primatology.
Minxha, J., Mosher, C., Morrow, J. K., Mamelak, A. N., Adolphs, R., Gothard, K. M., & Rutishauser, U. (2017). Fixations Gate Species-Specific Responses to Free Viewing of Faces in the Human and Macaque Amygdala. Cell reports, 18(4), 878-891.
Neurons in the primate amygdala respond prominently to faces. This implicates the amygdala in the processing of socially significant stimuli, yet its contribution to social perception remains poorly understood. We evaluated the representation of faces in the primate amygdala during naturalistic conditions by recording from both human and macaque amygdala neurons during free viewing of identical arrays of images with concurrent eye tracking. Neurons responded to faces only when they were fixated, suggesting that neuronal activity was gated by visual attention. Further experiments in humans utilizing covert attention confirmed this hypothesis. In both species, the majority of face-selective neurons preferred faces of conspecifics, a bias also seen behaviorally in first fixation preferences. Response latencies, relative to fixation onset, were shortest for conspecific-selective neurons and were ∼100 ms shorter in monkeys compared to humans. This argues that attention to faces gates amygdala responses, which in turn prioritize species-typical information for further processing.