Bordetella bronchiseptica can establish prolonged airway infection consistent with a highly developed ability to evade mammalian host immune responses. Upon initial interaction with the host upper respiratory tract mucosa, B. bronchiseptica are subjected to antimicrobial reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), effector molecules of the innate immune system. However, the responses of B. bronchiseptica to redox species at physiologically relevant concentrations (nM-microM) have not been investigated. Using predicted physiological concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on low numbers of CFU of B. bronchiseptica, all redox active species displayed dose-dependent antimicrobial activity. Susceptibility to individual redox active species was significantly increased upon introduction of a second species at subantimicrobial concentrations. An increased bacteriostatic activity of NO was observed relative to H2O2. The understanding of Bordetella responses to physiologically relevant levels of exogenous RNS and ROS will aid in defining the role of endogenous production of these molecules in host innate immunity against Bordetella and other respiratory pathogens.
Nitrite (NO2-), NG-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA), and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and can also be formed by secondary reactions of nitric oxide (NO). These compounds are commonly considered to be rather stable and as such to be dosimeters of NO biosynthesis. However, each can be converted via metal-catalyzed reactions into either NO or other reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS), such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitroxyl (HNO), which have biologic activities distinct from those of the parent molecules. Consequently, certain aspects of tissue regulation controlled by RNOS may be dictated to a significant extent by metal-dependent reactions, thereby offering unique advantages for cellular and tissue regulation. For instance, because many metal-catalyzed reactions depend on the redox and oxygen status of the cellular environment, such reactions could serve as redox indicators. Formation of RNOS by metal-mediated pathways would confine the chemistry of these species to specific cellular sites. Additionally, such mechanisms would be independent both of NO and NOS, thus increasing the lifetime of RNOS that react with NO. Thus metal-mediated conversion of nitrite, NOHA, and NH2OH into biologically active agents may provide a unique signaling mechanism. In this review, we discuss the biochemistry of such reactions in the context of their pharmacologic and biologic implications. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
The function of nitric oxide (•NO) in pathophysiology remains confounding as both protective and cytotoxic effects of •NO have been demonstrated in many disease processes. Nitric oxide chemistry culminating in the generation of oxidative as well as nitrosative intermediates have generally been proposed as mediators of pathophysiology and have overshadowed the antioxidant capabilities of •NO. However, the counteracting role of •NO in providing a balance under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress has been underappreciated. The purpose of this review is the discussion of the role of •NO as an antioxidant and interceptor of more potent reactive intermediates in normal physiology and disease. © 2004 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of nuclear enzymes is involved in the detection and signaling of single strand breaks induced either directly by ionizing radiation or indirectly by the sequential action of various DNA repair proteins. Therefore, PARP plays an important role in maintaining genome stability. Because PARP proteins contain two zinc finger motifs, these enzymes can be targets for reactive nitrogen oxide intermediates (RNOS) generated as a result of nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis in an aerobic environment. The effects of RNOS on the activity of purified PARP were examined using donor compounds. Both NO and nitroxyl (HNO) donors were found to be inhibitory in a similar time and concentration manner, indicating that PARP activity can be modified under both nitrosative and oxidative conditions. Moreover, these RNOS donors elicited comparable PARP inhibition in Sf21 insect cell extract and intact human MCF-7 cancer cells. The concentrations of donor required for 90% inhibition of PARP activity produce RNOS at a similar magnitude to those generated in the cellular microenvironment of activated leukocytes, suggesting that cellular scavenging of RNOS may not be protective against PARP modification and that inhibition of PARP may be significant under inflammatory conditions. © 2003 Elsevier Inc.
PMID: 20666387;PMCID: PMC2912650;Abstract:
The formation and interconversion of nitrogen oxides has been of interest in numerous contexts for decades. Early studies focused on gas-phase reactions, particularly with regard to industrial and atmospheric environments, and on nitrogen fixation. Additionally, investigation of the coordination chemistry of nitric oxide (NO) with hemoglobin dates back nearly a century. With the discovery in the early 1980s that NO is blosynthesized as a molecular signaling agent, the literature has been focused on the biological effects of nitrogen oxides, but the original concerns remain relevant. For instance, hemoglobin has long been known to react with nitrite, but this reductase activity has recently been considered to be important to produce NO under hypoxic conditions. The association of nitrosyl hydride (HNO; also commonly referred to as nitroxyl) with heme proteins can also produce NO by reductive nitrosylation. Furthermore, HNO is considered to be an intermediate in bacterial denitrification, but conclusive identification has been elusive. The authors of this article have approached the bioinorganic chemistry of HNO from different perspectives, which have converged because heme proteins are important biological targets of HNO. © 2010 American Chemical Society.