Nafees Ahmad, Ph.D., Professor of ImmunobiologyResearch Interests:1. Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 vertical transmission2. Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 pathogenesis in infants and children 3. Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 infection in immature and mature mononuclear cells4. Identification and characterization of cellular factors involved in HIV-1 replication in immature and mature mononuclear cells5. Biological activity of anti-HIV compoundsThe main focus of my laboratory is understanding the molecular mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mother-to-infant transmission and pathogenesis of pediatric AIDS (HIV-1 infection in children). Areas of investigation include: Molecular and biological characterization of HIV-1 isolates involved in maternal-fetal transmission; Genetic variability of HIV-1 following mother-to-infant transmission; Viral determinants, including viral heterogeneity, functional conservation/divergence of various HIV-1 genes, presence/absence of motifs in HIV-1 genes, replication efficiency, cell tropism, and cytopathic effects associated with HIV-1 maternal-fetal transmission; Viral and host factors associated with HIV-1 evolution, replication, pathogenesis and disease progression in infected infants and children; Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 infection in immature and mature mononuclear cells; Kinetics of HIV-1 replication in immature hosts (infants) primary lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages; Mechanisms of HIV-1 infection in immature and mature mononuclear cells, including entry and post-entry events, HIV-1 gene expression and T-cell development, Biological activity of anti-HIV compounds in tissue culture system of T-cell lines, primary lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages and receptor/coreceptor cell lines, Characterization of cellular factors in immature and mature mononuclear cells that may influence HIV replication differentially.