PMID: 22818079;PMCID: PMC3670763;Abstract:
A collection of Golgicide A (GCA) analogs has been synthesized and evaluated in larval and adult mosquito assays. Commercially available GCA is a mixture of four compounds. One enantiomer (GCA-2) of the major diastereomer in this mixture was shown to be responsible for the unique activity of GCA. Structure-activity studies (SAR) of the GCA architecture suggested that the pyridine ring was most easily manipulated without loss or gain in new activity. Eighteen GCA analogs were synthesized of which five displayed distinct behavior between larval and adult mosquitos, resulting in complete mortality of both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae. Two analogs from the collection were shown to be distinct from the rest in displaying high selectivity and efficiency in killing An. stephensi larvae. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transcriptional control of steroid-regulated gene networks by nuclear receptor proteins results in the coordinate expression of a limited number of target genes. Although much is known about the structure and function of steroid receptors, relatively few cell-specific steroid-regulated genes have been isolated and characterized. In this paper we describe results using mRNA differential display reverse transcriptase PCR (DDPCR) to identify and isolate short cDNA sequence tags from thymocyte and prostate cells under various hormone conditions. Using this technique we have isolated several differentially expressed sequence tags (DESTs) from the mouse thymocyte cell line WEHI 7.2. Two of these DESTs, GIG10 and GIG18, are rapidly induced by dexamethasone within 2 h of treatment. GIG10 is a novel sequence and GIG18 is the mouse homologue of a human expressed sequence tag isolated from activated B lymphocytes. We also used DDPCR to isolate DESTs from androgen-modulated rat ventral prostate tissue, one of which we characterized and found to correspond to the 3' end of prostatic spermine binding protein mRNA, a known androgen-regulated gene. Modifications of the original DDPCR protocol, which we found can potentially decrease the frequency of isolating false-positive DESTs, are described and the merits of DDPCR, relative to other differential cDNA cloning strategies, are discussed.
PMID: 20100490;PMCID: PMC2878907;Abstract:
Aedes aegypti utilizes blood for energy production, egg maturation and replenishment of maternal reserves. The principle midgut enzymes responsible for bloodmeal digestion are endoproteolytic serine-type proteases within the S1.A subfamily. While there are hundreds of serine protease-like genes in the A. aegypti genome, only five are known to be expressed in the midgut. We describe the cloning, sequencing and expression profiling of seven additional serine proteases and provide a genomic and phylogenetic assessment of these findings. Of the seven genes, four are constitutively expressed and three are transcriptionally induced upon blood feeding. The amount of transcriptional induction is strongly correlated among these genes. Alignments reveal that, in general, the conserved catalytic triad, active site and accessory catalytic residues are maintained in these genes and phylogenetic analysis shows that these genes fall within three distinct clades; trypsins, chymotrypsins and serine collagenases. Interestingly, a previously described trypsin consistently arose with other serine collagenases in phylogenetic analyses. These results suggest that multiple gene duplications have arisen within the S1.A subfamily of midgut serine proteases and/or that A. aegypti has evolved an array of proteases with a broad range of substrate specificities for rapid, efficient digestion of bloodmeals. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
The glucocorticoid receptor protein, in association with cognate hormonal ligands, binds with high affinity to specific DNA sequences termed glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) which can function as hormone-dependent transcriptional enhancers; thus, the receptor is a regulable enhancer-activating protein. We have constructed cell lines expressing different levels of glucocorticoid receptor, and demonstrate that the extent of a structural alteration in the chromatin at a characterized GRE, as well as the magnitude of several transcriptional responses elicited by the receptor, are roughly proportional to the number of receptor molecules per cell. Thus, for three independent glucocorticoid-responsive transcription units examined in our HTC-derived cell lines, the receptor appears to be a primary regulatory factor. Moreover, the results suggest that other cellular factors required for the assembly and function of GREs and transcription initiation complexes must be produced in excess relative to their levels of utilization at normal receptor concentrations.
The major Dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti requires nutrients obtained from blood meal proteins to complete the gonotrophic cycle. Although bioinformatic analyses of Ae. aegypti midgut serine proteases have provided evolutionary insights, very little is known about the biochemical activity of these digestive enzymes.